The prayers usually follow a set order and contain certain things.
The morning prayer contains various blessings and recitations, Pesukei d’Zimra (“Chapters of Glory,” a set of Psalms and other devotional passages), the blessings before the Shema, the Shema, the blessings after the Shema, and the Amida (Standing) (also known as Shemoneh Esreh (Eighteen) and Tefillah (Prayer)). There is also place and time to read the Torah if it’s Monday, Thursday, or the Sabbath.
The afternoon prayer consists of a Psalm, the Amidah, and Tachanun.
The evening prayer contains the blessings before the Shema, the Shema, the blessings after the Shema, and the Amidah.
For the morning prayer, the essential elements are Pesukei d’Zimra, the Shema with its blessings, and the Amidah. The essential elements for the afternoon prayer are the Psalm and the Amidah. The essential parts of the evening prayer are the Shema and its blessings and the Amidah.
More details on these elements forthcoming!